This tutorial will demonstrate all the functionality found in Momoko. It’s assumed a working PostgreSQL database is available, and everything is done in the context of a simple tornado web application. Not everything is explained: because Momoko just wraps Psycopg2, the Psycopg2 documentation must be used alongside Momoko’s.

The principle

Almost every method of Pool() and Connection() returns a future. There are some notable exceptions, like close(); be sure to consult API documentation for the details.

These future objects can be simply yield-ed in Tornado methods decorated with gen.coroutine. For SQL execution related methods these futures resolve to corresponding cursor objects.

Trival example

Here is the simplest synchronous version of connect/select code:

import psycopg2
conn = psycopg2.connect(dsn="...")
cursor = conn.cursor()
cursor.execute("SELECT 1")
rows = cursor.fetchall()

And this is how the same code looks with Momoko/Tornado:

import momoko
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
ioloop = IOLoop.instance()

conn = momoko.Connection(dsn="...")
future = conn.connect()
ioloop.add_future(future, lambda x: ioloop.stop())
future.result()  # raises exception on connection error

future = conn.execute("SELECT 1")
ioloop.add_future(future, lambda x: ioloop.stop())
cursor = future.result()
rows = cursor.fetchall()

We create connection object. Then invoke connect() method that returns future that resolves to connection object itself when connection is ready (we already have connection object at hand, thus we just wait until future is ready, ignoring its result).

Next we call execute() which returns future that resolves to ready-to-use cursor object. And we use IOLoop again to wait for this future to be ready.

Now you know to use Connection() for working with with stand-alone connections to PostgreSQL in asynchronous mode.

Introducing Pool

The real power of Momoko comes with Pool(). It provides several nice features that make it useful in production environments:

Connection pooling
It manages several connections and distributes queries requests between them. If all connections are busy, outstanding query requests are waiting in queue
Automatic pool growing (stretching)
You can allow automatic stretching - i.e. if all connections are busy and more requests are coming, Pool will open more connections up a certain limit
Automatic reconnects
If connections get terminated (database server restart, etc) Pool will automatically reconnect them and transparently retry query if it failed due to dead connection.


Here’s the code that’s needed for the rest of this tutorial. Each example will replace parts or extend upon this code. The code is kept simple and minimal; its purpose is just to demonstrate Momoko’s functionality. Here it goes:

from tornado import gen
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
from tornado.httpserver import HTTPServer
from tornado.options import parse_command_line
from tornado import web

import psycopg2
import momoko

class BaseHandler(web.RequestHandler):
    def db(self):
        return self.application.db

class TutorialHandler(BaseHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.write('Some text here!')

if __name__ == '__main__':
    application = web.Application([
        (r'/', TutorialHandler)
    ], debug=True)

    ioloop = IOLoop.instance()

    application.db = momoko.Pool(
        dsn='dbname=your_db user=your_user password=very_secret_password '
            'host=localhost port=5432',

    # this is a one way to run ioloop in sync
    future = application.db.connect()
    ioloop.add_future(future, lambda f: ioloop.stop())
    future.result()  # raises exception on connection error

    http_server = HTTPServer(application)
    http_server.listen(8888, 'localhost')

For more information about all the parameters passed to momoko.Pool see momoko.Pool in the API documentation.

Using Pool

execute(), callproc(), transaction() and mogrify() are methods of momoko.Pool which can be used to query the database. (Actually, mogrify() is only used to escape strings, but it needs a connection). All these methods, except mogrify(), return a cursor or an exception object. All of the described retrieval methods in Psycopg2’s documentation — fetchone, fetchmany, fetchall, etc. — can be used to fetch the results.

First, lets rewrite our trivial example using Tornado web handlers:

class TutorialHandler(BaseHandler):
    def get(self):
        cursor = yield self.db.execute("SELECT 1;")
        self.write("Results: %s" % cursor.fetchone())

To execute several queries in parallel, accumulate corresponding futures and yield them at once:

class TutorialHandler(BaseHandler):
    def get(self):
            f1 = self.db.execute('select 1;')
            f2 = self.db.execute('select 2;')
            f3 = self.db.execute('select 3;')
            yield [f1, f2, f3]

            cursor1 = f1.result()
            cursor2 = f2.result()
            cursor3 = f3.result()

        except (psycopg2.Warning, psycopg2.Error) as error:
            self.write('Q1: %r<br>' % (cursor1.fetchall(),))
            self.write('Q2: %r<br>' % (cursor2.fetchall(),))
            self.write('Q3: %r<br>' % (cursor3.fetchall(),))


All the above examples use execute(), but work with callproc(), transaction() and mogrify() too.


Manual connection management

You can manually acquire connection from the pool using the getconn() method. This is very useful, for example, for server-side cursors.

It important to return connection back to the pool once you’ve done with it, even if an error occurs in the middle of your work. Use either putconn() method or manage() manager to return the connection.

Here is the server-side cursor example (based on the code in momoko unittests):

def get(self):
    int_count = 1000
    offset = 0
    chunk = 10
        conn = yield self.db.getconn()
        with self.db.manage(conn):
            yield conn.execute("BEGIN")
            yield conn.execute("DECLARE all_ints CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM unit_test_int_table")
            while offset < int_count:
                cursor = yield conn.execute("FETCH %s FROM all_ints", (chunk,))
                rows = cursor.fetchall()
                # Do something with results...
                offset += chunk
            yield conn.execute("CLOSE all_ints")
            yield conn.execute("COMMIT")

    except Exception as error: